Abstract: On the eve of the 75th anniversary of the Victory in the Great Patriotic War, the publication of new or little-studied sources is undoubtedly important. The article presents documents on the activities of the Kalmyk Komsomol organization during the Great Patriotic War, which are stored in the Fund P-22 “Kalmyk regional Committee of the Komsomol” of the National Archive of the Republic of Kalmykia. In our case, these are reports to the Central Committee of the Komsomol on the work of the Kalmyk Regional Committee of the Komsomol in 1942−1943. These documents reflect in detail the actions of representatives of the Komsomol and youth in 1942, when the German offensive on the southern front threatened to occupy the territory of Kalmykia. Despite the difficult situation, the threat of total loss of territory and the establishment of a temporary occupation regime, Komsomol members continued to fulfill their state obligations, assist in the formation and deployment of partisan detachments, in the construction of defense lines, and in providing food. After the liberation, Komsomol members and young people took an active part in the restoration of the national economy of the Republic. Despite this, the City and Ulus Committees of Komsomol treated with distrust the Komsomol members who remained in the occupied territory and carried out checks on their activities behind enemy lines.
Abstract: The influence of abnormal natural factors on the results of the Sivash offensive operation in November-December 1943 is not enough studied issue. The natural features of the theater of the operation is unique. Sivash is the largest (130 km) Bay of the sea of Azov, with a swampy, muddy bottom and low depths. Surging winds abruptly and suddenly change the depth, and waves of up to 10 points and have a huge destructive force. The German command did not take into account the experience of the Red Army when crossing the “rotten sea”, which was a name of the Sivash, at the final stage of the Russian Civil War, in November 1920, and did not organize a defensive position on the Crimean coast of the Sivash Bay. Crossing the salt lake in harsh winter conditions under the influence of enemy aircraft and artillery led to significant losses of Soviet troops in manpower and military equipment. The scale of damage caused by abnormal natural factors on the results of the Sivash offensive operation in November-December 1943 requires further detailed investigation.
Abstract: Archival documents of the Taganrog administration during the occupation period are very important and interesting for researchers. Taganrog was occupied much longer than other cities and towns in the South of Russia. In addition, the invaders had no time to take out the archive due to the rapid advance of the Red Army in August 1943. The documents allow historians to study various directions of occupation politics from October 1941 to August 1943. Currently, only a part of the documents has been put into scientific circulation. The status of underage inhabitants of the town throughout the Nazi occupation is also an insufficiently studied issue.
This publication presents documents of Taganrog administration aimed to regulate the status of minors during the occupation period. The most significant activities of the administration in this area were the organization of schools and pre-school institutions, vaccination of children, as well as the fight against neglect and homelessness. The most interesting is the information about the work of various social institutions in Taganrog on June 1, 1943, three months before the end of the Nazi occupation. They demonstrate the achievements in the social sphere, primarily in relation to children and adolescents.
Abstract: Recording the memories of the participants and eyewitnesses of the Great Patriotic War is one of the most important ways to preserve a historical memory. These materials are valuable historical sources that allow us to analyze the perception of war by Russian society. These issues are not reflected in official documents, which historians traditionally refer to. However, the possibilities of recording memories of the war are steadily declining. The last generation of direct witnesses of the war are people who survived it in childhood. But they are becoming less and less.
The author of the memoirs, Valentin Matveevich Shubin, was born in 1937. At the age of 5, he became an eyewitness to the Nazi occupation of the city of Salsk, Rostov Region. Obviously, the basis of his story about the war and occupation is not only his own memories, but the information received in the family from his parents. Before the interview, was set the goal to find out how the city itself changed during the occupation and the living conditions of the people living in it. During the interview with the respondent, questions were raised about the everyday life of the population, relations within the family between relatives and with representatives of the occupying forces, and the various fates of people who found themselves in the war.
Abstract: The interview with Alexey Illarionovich Shapovalov was devoted to his military biography and frontline daily life during the Great Patriotic War. A.I. Shapovalov, a member of the 5th Guards Don Cossack Cavalry Red Banner Budapest Corps, participated in the liberation of Donbass, in the fights for Volnovakha, in the battles for Left and Right Bank Ukraine, in the liberation of Moldova, Romania and Hungary. The respondent details how his call to the front was carried out, how he had to adapt to the peculiarities of military service and endure all the hardships and deprivation of military life. The author of memories also shares moments from his personal life during the war and situations when he faced the enemy in combat conditions. The memories of A.I. Shapovalov are valuable evidence of how the war formed from an ordinary man the future professional of military affairs, in particular, the experienced armour-breaker, which he became during the Great Patriotic War.
Abstract: In the collections of the archive of the museum of the Votkinsk machine building plant there is a “Vorotov folder” containing drawings, photographs, letters and other documents, that are a valuable source on the history of Votkinsk’s shipbuilding. The article deals with the introduction into scientific circulation and analysis of one of the documents from the “Vorotov folder” – the “Vorotov list”, which is an inventory of the products of the shipbuilding department of the Votkinsk plant, apparently written in the 1970s. After analysis, the author made a conjecture that the “Vorotov list” was composed of at least three original lists. One of them probably represents the lost paperwork, another has unintentional errors from obviously oral sources. Thus, the use of the “Vorotov list” as a source on the history of Votkinsk shipbuilding should be accompanied by serious criticism.
Abstract: The first stage of the existence of the Ethnographic Department of the Russian Museum of Emperor Alexander III (1902–1913) was marked by the acquisition of funds. A prominent role in the collection of ethnographic items of the Balkar and Kabardian people was played by a correspondent of the Ethnographic Department of the Russian Museum, a student of the Moscow Imperial Technical School, Zachary Petrovich Valaev. In 1907, he toured the Balkar, Bezengiev, Chegem, Khulam and Urusbi communities, as well as the villages of Great and Little Kabarda. The objects of culture and everyday life of these peoples acquired by him expanded the pre-revolutionary collection of the Museum. The correspondence shows how preparation for the expedition was made, as well as how field work was carried out in the conditions of the First Russian revolution in the North Caucasus.
Abstract: Historical and revolutionary memories have always been at the forefront of political and scientific criticism. Their use is associated with the need to overcome not only the subjectivity of the author, but also inaccuracies and gaps in the narrative. At the same time, this type of historical sources has great potential for understanding the past, since it can go beyond the usual set of facts, official discourse, and traditional interpretations. Storchakov’s speech at the evening of memoirs of the participants of the Civil War at the Club of Political Convicts on October 11, 1931 in Dnepropetrovsk became the subject of research and interpretation with the involvement of other sources – participants in events, synchronous documents, as well as reference materials.